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Konu: The words

  1. #161
    Müdakkik Üye Ali.ihsan - ait Kullanıcı Resmi (Avatar)
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    SECOND RAY

    This Ray is the Qur'an's extraordinary comprehensiveness. It consists of five 'Flashes'.

    The First Flash

    is the comprehensiveness in the words. This comprehensiveness is clearly apparent from the verses mentioned both in all the previous Words, and in this Word. As is indicated by the Hadith "Each verse has an outer meaning, an inner meaning, a limit, and an aim, and each has roots, and boughs, and branches," {[*]: Ibn Hibban, Sahih, i, 146; al-Manawi, Fayd al-Qadir, iii, 54.} the words of the Qur'an have been positioned in such a way that all its phrases, words even, and even letters, and sometimes even an omission, has many aspects. It gives to all those it addresses their share from a different door.

    Take, for example, the verse,

    And the mountains [its] pegs, {[*]: Qur'an, 78:7.} a phrase which says, "I made the mountains as stakes and masts for that earth of yours." An ordinary person's share from this phrase would be this: he sees the mountains which appear like stakes driven into the ground, thinks of the benefits and bounties in them, and offers thanks to his Creator.

    A poet's share from this phrase: he imagines the earth as the ground, on which is pitched in a sweeping arc the dome of the heavens like a mighty green tent adorned with electric lamps, and he sees the mountains skirting the base of the heavens to be the pegs of the tent. He worships the All-Glorious Maker in wondering amazement.

    A tent-dwelling literary man's share of this phrase: he imagines the face of the earth to be a barren desert, and the mountain chains as the multifarious tents of nomads, as if the soil layer had been cast over high posts and the pointed tips of the posts had raised up the cloth of the soil, which he sees as the habitation of numerous different creatures looking one to the other. He prostrates in wonder before the Glorious Creator, Who placed and pitched so easily these august and mighty beings like tents on the face of the earth.

    The share of a geographer with a literary bent from this phrase: he thinks of the globe of the earth as a ship sailing the oceans of either the air or the ?ther, and the mountains as masts and posts driven into the ship to balance and stabilize it. He declares: "Glory be unto You! How sublime is Your glory!" before the All-Powerful One of Perfection, Who makes the mighty globe as an orderly ship, places us on it, and makes it voyage through the far reaches of the world.

    A sociologist and philosopher of human society's share of this phrase; his thoughts would go like this: the earth is a house, and the supporting post of the life of that house is animal life, while the supporting post of animal life are water, air, and earth, the conditions of life. And the supporting post of water, air, and earth are the mountains. For the mountains are the reservoirs for water, the combs for the air: they precipitate the noxious gases and purify it; they are the earth's preserver: they preserve it from being transformed into a swamp, and from the encroachment of the sea. They are also the treasuries for other necessities of human life. In utter reverence he offers praise and thanks to the Maker of Glory and Kindness, Who made these great mountains as posts for the earth -the house of our life- in this way, and appointed them as the keepers of the treasuries of our livelihood.

    The share of a scholar of natural science from this phrase would be this: he would think of the earthquakes and tremors which occur as the result of upheavals and fusions in the heart of the earth being calmed with the upthrust of mountains; that the emergence of mountains is the cause of the earth's stable rotation on its axis and in its orbit and its not deviating in its annual rotation as a result of the convulsions of earthquakes; and that the anger and wrath of the earth is quieted through it breathing through the vents in the mountains. He would come to believe completely, and would exclaim: "All wisdom is God's!"

    Another example:

    The heavens and the earth were joined together before We clove them asunder. {[*]: Qur'an, 21:30.}

    A scholar untainted by the study of philosophy would explain the words joined together like this: while the skies were shining and cloudless, and the earth dry and without life and incapable of giving birth, the skies were opened up with rain and the earth with vegetation, and all living beings were created through a sort of marriage and impregnation. To do this was the work of One so Powerful and Glorious that the face of the earth is merely a small garden of His, while the clouds veiling the face of the skies, sponges for watering it. The scholar understands this and prostrates before the tremendousness of His power.

    A searching philosopher would explain the same words in this way: while at the start of creation the heavens and earth were a formless mass, each consisting of matter like wet dough without benefit, offspring, or creatures, the All-Wise Creator both rolled them out and expanded them into a beautiful, beneficial form, and made them the source of adorned and numerous creatures. The philosopher would stand in wonder before the breadth of His wisdom.

    A modern philosopher would explain the words thus: at first, our globe and the other planets which form the solar system were fused together in the form of an undifferentiated dough. Then the All-Powerful and Self-Subsistent One rolled out the dough, and placed each of the planets in its position; leaving the sun where it was and bringing the earth here, He spread earth over the globe of the earth and sprinkled it with rain from the skies, scattered light over it from the sun, and inhabited it placing us on it. The philosopher would pull his head out of the swamp of nature, and declare: "I believe in God, the One, the Unique!"

    And another example:

    And the sun runs its course to a place appointed. {[*]: Qur'an, 36:38.}

    The Lam, translated here as 'to', expresses also the meaning of 'in'. Thus, ordinary believers see it as meaning 'to' and understand that the sun, which is a mobile lamp providing light and heat for them, will certainly conclude its journeying and reach its place of rest, then take on a form which will no longer be beneficial. And pondering over the great bounties the All-Glorious Creator has attached to the sun, they declare: "Glory be to God! All praise and thanks be to God!"

    A learned scholar would also show the Lam as meaning 'to', but he would think of it not only as a lamp, but also as a shuttle weaving the tapestries of the Sustainer on the loom of spring and summer, as an ink-pot whose ink is light for the letters of the Eternally Besought One written on the pages of night and day. And thinking of the order and regularity of the world, of which the apparent movement of the sun is a sign and to which it points, he would exclaim before His wisdom: "What wonders God has willed!", and declare before the All-Wise Maker's art: "How great are His blessings!", and he would bow in prostration.

    A geographer and philosopher would explain the Lam as meaning 'in', like this: through the Divine command and with a spring-like motion on its own axis, the sun orders and propels the solar system. Exclaiming in wonder and amazement before the All-Glorious Maker Who thus creates and sets in order this mighty clock: "All mightiness is God's, and all power!", he would cast away philosophy and embrace the wisdom of the Qur'an.

    A precise scholar would consider this Lam as both causal and adverbial, and would explain it like this: "Since the All-Wise Maker has made apparent causes a veil to His works, through a Divine law of His called gravity, He has tied the planets to the sun like stones in a sling, and causes them to revolve with different but regular motions within the sphere of His wisdom; and He has made the sun's spinning on its own axis an apparent cause giving rise to the gravity. That is, the meaning of (to) a place appointed, is 'it is in motion in its own appointed place for the stability of the solar system.' For it is a Divine rule, a dominical law like motion apparently giving rise to heat, and heat to force, and force to gravity." Thus, on understanding this from a single letter of the Qur'an, the philosopher would declare: "All praise and thanks be to God! It is in the Qur'an that true wisdom is to be found. I consider philosophy to be worth virtually nothing!"

    And the following idea would occur to a thinker of poetic bent from this Lam and the stability mentioned above: "The sun is a luminous tree, and the planets are its mobile fruits. But contrary to trees the sun shakes itself so the fruits do not fall. If it did not shake itself, they would fall and be scattered." Then he would think to himself: "The sun is an ecstatic leader of a group reciting God's Names. He recites in ecstasy in the centre of the circle and causing others to recite." In another treatise, I described this meaning as follows:

    Yes, the sun is a fruit-bearing tree; it shakes itself, so that the planets fall not, its fruits.

    If it rested in silence, the attraction would cease; and they would weep through space, its ecstatics.

    A further example:

    It is they who shall prosper. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:5.}

    This verse is general and unspecific, it does not specify in what way they shall be successful, so that each person may find what he wants in it. Its words are few, so that they may be lengthy. For the aim of some of those it is addressing is to be saved from the Fire. Others think only of Paradise. Some desire eternal happiness. Yet others seek only God's pleasure. While others know their aim and desire to be the vision of God; and so on. In numerous places, the Qur'an leaves the words open in this way, so that they may be general. It leaves things unsaid, so that it can express many meanings. It makes it brief, so that everyone may find his share. Thus, it says, who shall prosper. It does not determine how they shall prosper. It is as if with this omission it is saying: "O Muslims! Good news! O you who fear God! You shall find prosperity through being saved from Hell. O righteous one! You shall find prosperity in Paradise. O you who seeks knowledge of God! You will attain God's pleasure. O lover of God! You will experience the vision of God." And so on.

    Thus, out of thousands we have offered one example of each of the phrases, words, letters, and omissions demonstrating the comprehensiveness of the Qur'an's words. You may make analogies and compare its verses and stories with these.

    Another example, the verse,

    Know then that there is no god but God, and ask forgiveness for your fault. {[*]: Qur'an, 47:19.}

    This verse contains so many aspects and degrees that all the levels of saints have found their needs from it in all their spiritual journeyings and in all their degrees, and have found spiritual sustenance and a fresh meaning from it appropriate for their own level. For, since the Name of 'Allah' is a comprehensive Name, there are aspects of Divine unity within it to the number of the Most Beautiful Names: "There is no provider but Him! There is no creator but Him! There is no merciful one but Him!" And so on.

    And, for example, among the stories of the Qur'an, the story of Moses (Peace be upon him) contains thousands of benefits, just like the Staff of Moses. There are numerous aims and aspects in the story, like consoling and comforting the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him), and threatening the unbelievers, and censuring the dissemblers, and rebuking the Jews. For this reason it is repeated in many Suras. Although it expresses all the aims in every place it is repeated, only one is the main aim and the others are secondary.

  2. #162
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    If you say:

    How can we know all the meanings in the examples you have given, which the Qur'an intends and points to?

    We would reply:

    Since the Qur'an is a pre-eternal address, and sitting above and beyond the centuries, which, layer upon layer, are all different, addresses and instructs all of mankind lined up within them, certainly it will include and intend numerous meanings according to those varying understandings, and will make allusions to what it intends. The numerous meanings contained in the Qur'an's words similar to those mentioned here have been proved in Isharat al-I'jaz (Signs of Miraculousness) according to the rules of Arabic grammar, and the sciences of rhetoric, semantics, and eloquence and their rules. According to the consensus of those qualified to interpret the Shari'a and the Qur'anic commentators and scholars of theology and jurisprudence, and according to the testimony of their differences, on condition they are considered correct by the sciences of Arabic and the principles of religion, all the aspects and meanings which are found acceptable by the science of semantics, and appropriate by the science of rhetoric, and desirable by the science of eloquence, may be considered among the meanings of the Qur'an. The Qur'an has placed allusions to each of those meanings according to its degree. They are either literal or significative. If significative, they are allusions to them in either the preceding context or the after context or in other verses. Some of them have been expounded in Qur'anic commentaries of twenty, thirty, forty, sixty, and even eighty volumes, written by exacting scholars, which are clear and decisive proofs of the extraordinary comprehensiveness of the Qur'an's words. However, if in this Word we were to point out the allusions indicating alll the meanings together with their rules, the discussion would become extremely prolonged. So we cut it short here, and for part of it, refer you to Isharat al-I'jaz.

    Second Flash:

    This is the extraordinary comprehensiveness in its meaning. Yes, together with bestowing from the treasuries of its meaning the sources for all the interpreters of the Shari'a, the illuminations of all those seeking knowledge of God, the ways of all those seeking union with God, the paths of all the perfected from among mankind, and the schools of all the scholars, the Qur'an has at all times been the guide of all of them and directed them in their progress, and it is verified unanimously by all of them that it has illuminated their ways from its treasuries.

    Third Flash:

    This is the extraordinary comprehensiveness in its knowledge. The Qur'an has caused to flow forth from the oceans of its own knowledge, the numerous and various sciences of the Shari'a, the multifarious sciences of reality (haqiqat), and the innumerable different sciences of sufism (tariqat). Similarly, it has caused to flow forth in abundance and good order the true wisdom of the sphere of contingency, the true sciences of the sphere of necessity, and the enigmatic knowledge of the sphere of the hereafter. One would have to write a whole volume to provide examples of this Flash, and so as mere samples, we point to the twenty-five Words so far written. Yes, the veracious truths of all twenty-five Words are only twenty-five droplets from the ocean of the Qur'an's knowledge. If there are errors in those Words, they spring from my defective understanding.

    Fourth Flash:

    This is the extraordinary comprehensiveness of the subjects it puts forward. Together with bringing together the extensive subjects of man and his duties, the universe and the Creator of the universe, the heavens and the earth, this world and the hereafter, the past and the future, and pre-eternity and post-eternity, the Qur'an explains all the essential and important topics from man's creation from seminal fluid till when he enters the grave; from the correct conduct of eating and sleeping to the matters of Divine Decree and Determining; from the creation of the world in six days, to the duties of the wind blowing, indicated by the oaths of,

    By the [winds] that scatter, {[*]: Qur'an, 51:1.} and,


    By the [winds] sent forth; {[*]: Qur'an, 77:1.} from His intervention in man's heart and will, indicated by,

    comes between a man and his heart, {[*]: Qur'an, 8:24.} and,

    But you will not except as God wills, {[*]: Qur'an, 76:30.} to,

    And the heavens rolled up in His right hand, {[*]: Qur'an, 39:67.} that is, to His holding all the heavens within His grip; from the flowers, and grapes, and dates of the earth described in,

    And We produce therein gardens of date-palms and vines, {[*]: Qur'an, 36:34.} to the strange truth expressed by,

    When the earth is shaken to its utmost convulsion; {[*]: Qur'an, 99:1.} from the state of the skies in,

    Then He directed [His will] towards the skies and they were smoke, {[*]: Qur'an, 41:11.} to their being rent with smoke and the stars falling and being scattered in infinite space; from the world's being opened for test and examination, to its closing; from the grave, the first dwelling of the hereafter, and then from the Intermediate Realm, the resurrection, and the Bridge, to eternal happiness; from the events of the past, and the creation of the body of Adam and the dispute of his two sons, to the Flood, and the drowning of the people of Pharaoh, and the major events of most of the prophets; and from the pre-eternal circumstance alluded to by,

    Am I not your Sustainer? {[*]: Qur'an, 7:172.} to the post-eternal occurrence expressed by,

    Some faces that day will beam in brightness * Looking towards their Sustainer; {[*]: Qur'an, 75:22-3.} all these fundamental, important subjects are explained in a way befitting the All-Glorious One Who administers the whole universe as though it was a palace, and opens and closes this world and the hereafter like two rooms, and regulates the earth as if it was a garden and the heavens as though they were a roof adorned with lamps, and beholds the past and the future as though they were two pages present in His sight like a single night and day, and looks on pre-eternity and post-eternity as though they were yesterday and tomorrow, in a form in which the two sides of a chain of events are joined together and touching in present time. Just as a master builder speaks of two houses he has constructed and arranged, and makes out the programme and list and index of the matters involved, so the Qur'an is fitting for the One Who makes the universe and arranges it, and writes out and displays the list and index and -if one may say so- the programme of the matters concerned with it. There is no sign of any artificiality or false display. And just as there is no trace of imitation or hint of any fraud, like speaking on behalf of someone else or supposing itself to be in someone else's place and speaking, so too with all its seriousness, all its purity, all its sincerity, the Qur'an's pure, shining, brilliant exposition declares: "I am the word and exposition of the Creator of the world," just as the light of day declares: "I came from the sun."

    Indeed, apart from the Maker Who adorns this world with antique arts and fills its with delicious bounties and scatters bountifully over the face of the world together with these wonders of His art so many valuable gifts, and setting them in orderly lines spreads them out over the face of the earth, apart from this Bestower of Bounties, who else could the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition be fitting for - the Qur'an which fills the world with this clamour of salutation and acclaim, this resounding praise and thanks, and transforms the earth into a place for the recitation of God's Names, a mosque, and place for gazing on the Divine works of art? Whose speech could it be apart from His? Who can claim ownership of it apart from Him?

    Whose word could it be other than His? Whose light could the exposition of the Qur'an be, which solves the talisman of creation and illuminates the world, other than the Pre-Eternal Sun's? Who has the ability to produce the like of it, and imitate it? In truth, it is impossible for the Artist Who adorns this world with His arts not to speak with man, who appreciates His art. Since He makes and knows, He surely speaks. And since He speaks, it is surely the Qur'an which is appropriate to His speech. How should a Lord of All Dominion Who is not indifferent to the way a flower is ordered remain indifferent to a discourse which brings all His dominion to a clamour of salutation and praise? Would He permit it to be attributed to others and be made as nothing?

  3. #163
    Müdakkik Üye Ali.ihsan - ait Kullanıcı Resmi (Avatar)
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    Fifth Flash:

    This is the wonderful comprehensiveness of the Qur'an's style and conciseness. It consists of five 'Glows'.

    First Glow:

    The Qur'an's style has a comprehensiveness so wonderful that a single Sura contains the ocean of the Qur'an, which in turn contains the universe. A single of its verses contains the treasury of the Sura. And most of the verses are each a short Sura, while most of the Suras are short Qur'ans. Thus, this is a great favour and guidance and facilitating arising from its miraculous conciseness. For although everyone has need of the Qur'an all the time, either due to foolishness or for some other reason, they do not have the time to read all of it, or they do not have the opportunity. So in order that they should not to be deprived of it, each Sura is like a short Qur'an, and each long verse even has the rank of a Sura. Those who penetrate to the inner meaning of things agree that the whole Qur'an is contained in the Sura al-Fatiha, even, and the Fatiha in the Bismillah. The proof of this fact is the consensus of the scholars who have investigated it.

    Second Glow:

    The verses of the Qur'an are comprehensive through their denoting and indicating all the categories of speech and true knowledge and human needs, like command and prohibition, promise and threat, encouragement and deterring, restraint and guidance, stories and comparisons, the Divine ordinances and teachings, the sciences related to the universe, and the laws and conditions of personal life, social life, the life of the heart, spiritual life, and the life of the hereafter. So that the truth of the saying, "Take whatever you want from the Qur'an for whatever you want" has become accepted to such a degree by the people of reality that it has become proverbial among them. There is such a comprehensiveness in the verses of the Qur'an that they may be the cure for every ill and the sustenance for every need. Yes, they have to be like that, because it is essential that the absolute guide of all the levels of the people of perfection, who continually rise in the degrees of progress, possesses this property.

    Third Glow:

    This is the Qur'an's miraculous conciseness. It sometimes happens that the Qur'an mentions the two ends of a long chain in such a way that it shows clearly the whole chain. And sometimes it happens that it includes explicitly, implicitly, figuratively, and allusively in one word many proofs of an assertion. For example, in the verse:

    And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your tongues and in your colours, {[*]: Qur'an, 30:22.} by mentioning the beginning and end of the chain of the universe's creation, which forms a chain of signs and indications of Divine unity, the verse shows the second chain. It makes the first chain read it out. Yes, the first degree of the pages of the world which testify to an All-Wise Maker is the origin of the heavens and the earth, their creation. Next is the heavens being adorned with stars and the earth made to rejoice with living beings. Then the change of the seasons through the subjugation of the sun and the moon. Then is the alternation of day and night, and the chain of events within these. And so it goes on as far as the characteristics and distinguishing individual features on faces and in voices, the most widely spread loci of multiplicity. Thus, since there is an astonishing and wise order in the characteristics of individual faces, which are the furthest from order and most subject to the interference of chance, if it is shown that the pen of a most wise craftsman works there, surely the other pages, whose order is clear, will themselves be understood and display their Inscriber. And since the works of art and wisdom of a Maker are apparent in the original creation of the vast heavens and earth, Who positions them purposefully as the foundation stones of the palace of the universe; the works of His art and the impress of His wisdom will surely be most clear in His other beings. Thus, by exposing the concealed and concealing the obvious, this verse expresses a most beautiful succinctness.

    Similarly in the verses from:

    So give glory to God when you reach eventide.. .. till

    And to Him belongs the loftiest similitude in the heavens and the earth; for He is Exalted in Might, Full of Wisdom, {[*]: Qur'an, 30:17-27.} the chain of proofs which begins six times with the words, And among His signs..., And among His signs, is a sequence of jewels, a sequence of light, a sequence of miraculousness, a sequence of miraculous conciseness. I wish from the heart to display the hidden diamonds in these treasuries, but what can I do?, the discussion here does not support it. So postponing it to another time, I am not opening that door for now.

    And for example:

    ...Send me therefore * O Joseph! O Man of truth! {[*]: Qur'an, 12:46.}

    Between.. send me therefore and O Joseph! are these words:. ..Joseph, that I may ask him to interpret the dream. So I sent him, and he went to the prison and said to Joseph... That is to say, although five sentences have been abbreviated and summarized in one sentence, it does not mar the clarity or hinder the understanding.

    And, for example:

    Who produces for you fire from the green tree. {[*]: Qur'an, 36:80.}

    Here the Qur'an is saying in the face of rebellious man's denials, who is as though challenging the Qur'an by saying, "Who will raise to life rotten bones?", "Whoever created them in the first place, He will raise them to life. And that Creator knows every single aspect of every single thing. Furthermore, He who provides fire for you from the green tree, is able to give life to dry bones." Thus, this sentence looks in numerous ways to the claim that man will raised to life, and proves it.

    Firstly, with these words the Qur'an starts off the chain of bounties it lays before man, moves its forward, and calls it to mind. Having described it in detail in other verses, it cuts short the description here, and refers it to the intelligence. That is, "You cannot flee from the One Who gives you fruit and fire from trees, sustenance and seeds from plants, cereals and grains from the earth, and makes the earth a fine cradle for you filled with all your sustenance, and the world a palace in which is found all your needs - you cannot be independent of Him, or disappear into non-existence and hide there. You cannot enter the grave without duties to sleep in comfort not to be awoken.

  4. #164
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    Then it points out an evidence of the claim. With the words, the green tree, it implies: "O you who deny resurrection! Look at the trees! One Who raises to life and makes green in spring numberless bone-like trees which have been dead throughout winter, and in every tree even demonstrates three examples of resurrection through the leaves, blossoms, and fruit - the power of such a One cannot be challenged through denial or by considering resurrection improbable."

    Then it points out another evidence, saying: "How do you deem it unlikely that One Who extracts for you out of dense, heavy, dark matter like a tree, subtle, light, luminous manner like fire should give fire-like life and light-like consciousness to wood-like bones?"

    Then it states another evidence explicitly; it says: "One Who creates the famous tree which while green produces fire for nomads in place of matches when two of its branches are rubbed together, and combines two opposites like the green and damp and the dry and hot, and makes them the source of the fire - everything, even the fundamental elements, looks to His command and acts through His power. It cannot be considered unlikely of the One Who demonstrates that none of these is independent and acts of its own accord that He should raise up man from the earth once again, who was made from earth and later returned to the earth. He may not be challenged with rebellion."

    Then, through recalling Moses's (Peace be upon him) famous tree, it shows that this claim of Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him) is also that of Moses (PBH). Lightly alluding to the consensus of the prophets, it adds one more subtle point to the phrase.

    Fourth Glow:

    The Qur'an's conciseness is so comprehensive and wonderful that when studied carefully it becomes apparent that sometimes, through some simple detail or particular event, it compassionately shows to simple, ordinary minds most extensive, lengthy, universal rules and general laws, like showing an ocean in a ewer. We shall point out only two examples of this out of thousands.

    First Example:

    This is the three verses expounded in detail in the First Station of the Twentieth Word, which describe under the name of 'the teaching of the Names' to the person of Adam, the teaching of all the sciences and branches of knowledge with which the sons of Adam have been inspired. Through the angels prostrating before Adam and Satan not prostrating, they state that most beings from fish to angels are subjugated to human kind, just as harmful creatures from snakes to Satan do not obey man and are hostile to him. And through the people of Moses (Peace be upon him) slaughtering a cow, they state that the concept of cow-worship -which was taken from the worship of cows in Egypt and showed its effect in 'the event of the calf'- was slaughtered by Moses' knife. And through water gushing forth from the rock and springs flowing out and spreading, they also state that the rock layer which is under the soil layer acts as the source of both water springs and the soil.

    Second Example:

    This is the whole and the parts of the story of Moses (Peace be upon him), which is frequently repeated in the Qur'an, and each of the repetitions of which is shown as the tip of a universal rule, with each repetition stating the rule in question. For example:

    O Haman! Build me a lofty palace. {[*]: Qur'an, 40:36.}

    Pharaoh is commanding his minister: "Build me a high tower so that I can take a look at the heavens and observe them. I wonder if there is a God who governs in the skies like Moses claims, who can be seen from their disposition?" Thus, through the word 'palace' and this minor incident, it states a strange rule dominant in the traditions of the Egyptian Pharaohs, who, because they lived in the desert with no mountains, wanted mountains, and because they did not recognize the Creator, were worshippers of nature and claimed godhead; and worshipping fame, through displaying the works of their dominion perpetuated their name and constructed the famous mountain-like pyramids; and agreed to magic and metempsychosis, and had their corpses mummified and preserved in their mountain-like tombs.

    And, for example:

    This day We shall save you in your body. {[*]: Qur'an, 10:92.}

    By saying to Pharaoh, who is drowning: "Today I am going to save your body which will drown," it is expressing a death-tainted, exemplary rule of the Pharaohs' lives, which was, as a consequence of the idea of metempsychosis and mummifying the bodies of all of them, to take them from the past and send them to be viewed by the generations of the future. And this present century a body was discovered which was the very body of Pharaoh, thrown up on the seashore where he drowned. The verse thus states a miraculous sign of the Unseen, that the body was to be borne on the waves of the centuries and cast up from the sea of time onto the shore of this century.

    And, for example:

    They slaughtered your sons and let your women-folk live. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:49; 14:6.}

    With an event in the time of a Pharaoh, the slaughtering of the sons of the Children of Israel and the sparing of their women and daughters, it mentions the numerous massacres which the Jewish nation has suffered every age, and the role their women and girls have played in dissolute human life.

    And you will indeed find them, of all people, most greedy of life. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:96.} * And you see many of them racing each other in sin and rancour, and their eating of things forbidden. Evil indeed are the things they do. {[*]: Qur'an, 5:62.} * But they [ever] strive to do mischief on earth. And God loves not those who do mischief. {[*]: Qur'an, 5:64.} * And We gave [clear] warning to the Children of Israel in the Book, that twice they would do mischief on the earth. {[*]: Qur'an, 17:4.} * And do no evil nor mischief on the earth. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:60.}

    These two statements of the Qur'an directed at the Jews, comprise the two fearsome general rules, that that nation hatches plots in human social life with their trickery, which shake human society. They say that just as it was that nation which made labour contest with capital; and through usury and compounded interest, made the poor clash with the rich, and caused the banks to be founded, and amassed wealth through wiles and fraud; so it was again that nation who, in order to take their revenge on the victors and governments under which they always suffered deprivation and oppression, were involved in every sort of corrupting covert organization and had a finger in every sort of revolution.

    And, for example:

    Then seek ye for death {[*]: Qur'an, 2:94.}

    That is, "If what you say is true, seek death, but you won't seek it!" Thus, through a minor incident in a small gathering in the presence of the Prophet (PBUH), it points out that the Jewish nation, which is most famous among the nations of mankind for its greed for life and fear of death, will not, according to its tongue of disposition, seek death till Doomsday, and will not give up its greed for life.

    And, for example:

    Thus they were stamped with humiliation and indigence. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:61.}

    With this, it describes generally that nation's future destiny. It is because of these fearsome rules governing the destiny and character of this nation that the Qur'an acts so severely against them. It deals them awesomely punishing slaps. From these examples draw analogies with the other stories and passages about Moses (Peace be upon him) and the Children of Israel. Now, there are very many flashes of miraculousness like the flash in this Fourth Glow behind the simple words and specific subjects of the Qur'an. A hint is enough for the wise.

    Fifth Glow:

    This is the extraordinary comprehensiveness of the Qur'an in regard to its aims and subjects, meanings and styles, and its subtle qualities and fine virtues. Indeed, if the Suras and verses of the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition are studied carefully, and especially the openings of the Suras, and the beginnings and ends of the verses, it will be seen that although it gathers together all the categories of rhetoric, all the parts of fine speech, all the classes of elevated styles, all the sorts of fine morality, all the summaries of the sciences relating to the universe, all the indexes of Divine knowledge, all the beneficial rules for individual and human social life, and all the luminous laws of the exalted physical sciences, not a trace of confusion is apparent. In truth, to gather together in one place this many different categories of knowledge and not to cause any dispute or difficulty can only be the work of an overwhelming miraculous order.

    Then together with the order within this comprehensiveness, as is expounded and proved in the previous twenty-four Words, to rend the veils of the habitual and commonplace, which are the source of compounded ignorance, and to draw out the wonders concealed beneath them and display them; to smash with the diamond sword of proof the idol of nature, which is the source of misguidance; to scatter with thunderous trumpet-blasts the dense layers of the sleep of heedlessness; and to uncover and reveal the obscure talisman of being and the strange riddle of the creation of the world, before which human philosophy and science have remained impotent, is most surely only the wondrous work of a wonder-worker like the Qur'an - the Qur'an, which sees reality, is familiar with the Unseen, bestows guidance, and shows the truth.

    If the Qur'an's verses are considered carefully and fairly, it will be seen that they do not resemble a gradual chain of thought, following one or two aims, like other books. For the Qur'an's manner is sudden and instantaneous; it is inspired on the moment; its mark is that all its aspects arrive together but independently from distant places, a most serious and important discourse which comes singly and concisely.

    Yes, who is there apart from the universe's Creator that could give a discourse concerned to this degree with the universe and the Creator of the universe? Who could step beyond his mark to an infinite degree and make the All-Glorious Creator speak according to his own whims, then make the universe speak the truth? Yes, in the Qur'an, the universe's Maker is seen to be speaking and making others speak most seriously and truthfully and in elevated and true fashion. There is no sign at all to suggest imitation. He speaks and makes speak. If, to suppose the impossible, someone like Musaylima was to step beyond his mark to an infinite degree, and by way of imitation make the All-Glorious Creator, the Sublime and Majestic One, speak according to his own ideas, and the universe as well, there certainly would be thousands of signs of imitation and indications of falsehood. For when the contemptible assume the manner of the lofty, their every action shows up their pretence. So consider carefully these verses, which proclaim this fact with an oath:

    By the star when it goes down! * Your companion is neither astray nor being misled * Nor does he say [aught] of [his own] desire * It is no less than revelation inspired! {[*]: Qur'an, 53:1-4.}

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    THIRD RAY

    This is the miraculousness of the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition which is its giving news of the Unseen, preserving its youth in every age, and being appropriate to every level of person. This Ray has three 'Radiances'.

    First Radiance:

    This is its giving news of the Unseen. It consists of three 'Glistens'.

    The First Glisten

    is its telling about the past, one part of the Unseen. Indeed, the All-Wise Qur'an mentions through the tongue of one whom everyone agreed was both unlettered and trustworthy the important events and significant facts concerning the prophets from the time of Adam till the Era of Bliss in a way which, confirmed by scriptures like the Torah and the Bible, tells of them with the greatest power and seriousness. It concurs with the points on which the former Books were agreed, and decides between them on the points over which they differed, pointing out the truth of the matter. That is to say, the Qur'an's view which penetrates the Unseen sees the events of the past in a way over and above all the previous scriptures, and pronounces them right and confirms them in the matters on which they are agreed, and acts as arbiter between them, correcting in matters about which they are at variance.

    However, the facts the Qur'an relates about the events of the past are not things that could have been learnt through the exercise of reason that they were communicated by it; they were rather transmitted knowledge, dependent on the heavens, on revelation. And as for transmitted knowledge, it is the domain of those who know how to read and write, and these were revealed to one known by friend and foe alike as knowing neither how to read nor how to write, and as being trustworthy; someone described as unlettered.

    Also, the Qur'an tells of those past events as though it had actually seen them. For it takes the spirit and vital point of a lengthy event, and makes them the introduction to its aim. That is to say, the summaries and extracts which the Qur'an contains show that it sees all the past together with all its events. For just as someone who is an expert in some science or craft shows his skill and proficiency through some succinct words or a concise statement, so the summaries and spirits of events mentioned in the Qur'an show that the one who said them comprehends all the events and sees them, and, if one may say so, relates them with extraordinary skill.

    The Second Glisten

    is its giving news of the future, which is another part of the Unseen. There are many sorts of this. The first sort is particular, and special to the saints and those seek the truth through illumination. For example, Muhyiddin al-'Arabi discovered numerous instances of the Qur'an's giving news of the Unseen in the Sura,

    Alif. Lam. Mim. * The Roman Empire has been defeated. {[*]: Qur'an, 30:1-2.}

    And Imam-i Rabbani saw many signs of the events of the Unseen and the communicating of them through the 'disjointed letters' at the start of some Suras, and so on. For scholars of the Batiniya School, the Qur'an consisted from beginning to end of information about the Unseen. We, however, shall indicate some which are general. These too have many levels, one of which we shall discuss. Thus, the All-Wise Qur'an says to God's Noble Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him):

    {(*): Since these verses which give news of the Unseen have been expounded in numerous Qur'anic commentaries, and also due to the haste imposed on the author by his intention to have this work printed in the old [Ottoman] script,* they have not been explained here and those valuable treasuries have remained closed. [*See, page 375, footnote 1 above. -Tr.]}

    So patiently persevere, for God's promise is true. {[*]: Qur'an, 30:60.} * You shall enter the Sacred Mosque if God wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear; * He it is Who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, so it should prevail over all religion. {[*]: Qur'an, 48:27-28.} * But they, after this defeat of theirs will soon be victorious, * within a few years. With God is the decision. {[*]: Qur'an, 30:3-4.} * Soon will you see, and they will see * which of you is afflicted with madness. {[*]: Qur'an, 68:5-6.} * Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity [hatched] by time?" * Say: "Wait, then. And I shall wait with you!" {[*]: Qur'an, 52:30-1.} * And God will defend you from men. {[*]: Qur'an, 5:67.} * But if you cannot, and of a surety you cannot. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:24.} * But they will never seek it. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:95.} * We shall show them Our signs on the furthest horizons and in their own selves, so that it becomes clear to them that this is the Truth. {[*]: Qur'an, 41:53.} * Say: If the whole of mankind and the jinns were to come together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support. {[*]: Qur'an, 17:88.} * God will produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him, lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of God, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. {[*]: Qur'an, 5:54.} * And say: Praise be to God, Who will show you His signs, so that you shall know them. {[*]: Qur'an, 27:93.} * Say: He is the Most Merciful; we have believed in Him, and in Him have we put our trust. Soon you shall know which [of us] it is that is in manifest error. {[*]: Qur'an, 67:29.}

    God has promised to those among you who believe and act righteously that He will of a surety grant them inheritance [of power] in the land, as He granted it to those before them; that He will establish in authority their religion, which He has chosen for them; and that He will change [their state] after their fear, to one of security and peace. {[*]: Qur'an, 24:55.}

    The information about the Unseen which many verses like these give turned out to be exactly true. Because it was given by one who was subject to many criticisms and objections and could have lost his cause through the tiniest mistake, and was spoken unhesitatingly, and with absolute seriousness and confidence in a way that confirmed its authenticity, this news of the Unseen demonstrates with certainty that the one who gave it had received instruction from the Pre-Eternal Master, and then he spoke.

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    The Third Glisten

    is its giving news of the Divine truths, cosmic truths, and the matters of the hereafter. The Qur'an's expositions of the Divine truths, and its explanations of the cosmos, which solve the talisman of the universe and riddle of creation, are the most important of its disclosures about the Unseen. For it is not reasonable to expect the human reason to discover those truths about the Unseen and follow them without deviating amid innumerable ways of misguidance. It is well-known that the most brilliant philosophers of mankind have been unable to solve the most insignificant of those matters by use of the reason. Furthermore, it is only after the Qur'an has elucidated those Divine truths and cosmic truths, which it points out, and after man's heart has been cleansed and his soul purified, and after his spirit has advanced and his mind been perfected that his mind affirms and accepts those truths, and he says to the Qur'an: "How great are God's blessings!" This section has been in part explained and proved in the Eleventh Word, and there is no need to repeat it. But when it comes to facts concerning the hereafter and Intermediate Realm, the human mind certainly cannot rise to them and see them on its own. However, it can prove them to the degree it sees them through the ways shown by the Qur'an. It is explained and proved in the Tenth Word just how right and true are these disclosures of the Qur'an about the Unseen.

    Second Radiance:

    This is the Qur'an's youth. It preserves its freshness and youth every age as though newly revealed. In fact, the Qur'an has to have perpetual youth since as a pre-eternal address, it addresses at once all the levels of mankind in every age. And that is how it has been seen and is seen. Even, although all the centuries are different with regard to ideas and capacity, it as though looks to each particularly, and teaches it. Man's works and laws grow old like man, they change and are changed. But the rulings and laws of the Qur'an are so firm and well-founded that they increase in strength as the centuries pass. Indeed, this present age and the People of the Book this age, who have more than any other relied on themselves and stopped up their ears to the words of the Qur'an, are so in need of its guiding address of,

    O People of the Book! O People of the Book!

    that it is as if it addresses this age directly, and the phrase O People of the Book! comprises also the meaning of O People of the Modern Science Books! {[*]: Ehl-i Mekteb, those educated in modern secular schools, as opposed to Ehl-i Kitab. [Tr.]} It delivers its shout of,

    O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you {[*]: Qur'an, 3:64.} to the ends of the world with all its strength, all its freshness, all its youth.

    For example, modern civilization, which is the product of the thought of all mankind and perhaps the jinn as well, has taken up a position opposed to the Qur'an, which individuals and communities have failed to dispute. With its sorcery it impugns the Qur'an's miraculousness. Now, in order to prove the claim of the verse:

    Say: if the whole of mankind the jinns were to gather together..., {[*]: Qur'an, 17:88.}

    we shall compare the foundations and principles which civilization has laid in the form of dispute, with the principles of the Qur'an.

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    At the First Degree:

    The comparisons and balances which form all the Words from the First to the Twenty-Fifth, and the verses at their heads which form their truths, all prove with the certainty that two plus two equals four the Qur'an's miraculousness and supremacy in the face of civilization.

    At the Second Degree:

    Like the proofs in the Twelfth Word, it is to summarize a number of principles. By reason of its philosophy, present-day civilization accepts 'force' as the point of support in the life of society. It takes as its aim 'benefits,' and considers the principle of its life to be 'conflict.' It considers the bond between communities to be 'racialism and negative nationalism.' While its aim is to provide 'amusements' for gratifying the appetites of the soul and increasing man's needs. However, the mark of force is aggression. And since the benefits are insufficient to meet all needs, their mark is that everyone tussles and jostles over them. The mark of conflict is contention, and the mark of racialism, aggression, since it thrives on devouring others. Thus, it is because of these principles of civilization that despite all its virtues, it has provided a sort of superficial happiness for only twenty per cent of mankind and cast eighty per cent into distress and poverty.

    The wisdom of the Qur'an, however, takes as its point of support 'truth' in stead of force, and in place of benefit has 'virtue and God's pleasure' as its aims. It considers 'the principle of mutual assistance' to be fundamental in life, rather than conflict. In the ties between communities it accepts 'the bonds of religion, class, and country,' in place of racialism and nationalism. Its aims are to place a barrier before the illicit assaults of the soul's base appetites and to urge the spirit to sublime matters, to satisfy man's elevated emotions and encourage him towards the human perfections. And as for the truth, its mark is concord, the mark of virtue is mutual support, and the mark of mutual assistance, hastening to help one another. The mark of religion is brotherhood and attraction. And the result of reining in and tethering the evil-commanding soul and leaving the spirit free and urging it towards perfection is happiness in this world and the next. Thus, despite the virtues present-day civilization has acquired from the guidance of the Qur'an in particular, and from the preceding revealed religions, in point of fact it has thus suffered defeat before the Qur'an.

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    Third Degree:

    Of thousands of matters, we shall point out only three or four by way of example. Since the Qur'an's principles and laws have come from pre-eternity, they shall go to post-eternity. They are not condemned to grow old and die like civilization's laws. They are always young and strong. For example, despite all its societies for good works, all its establishments for the teaching of ethics, all its severe discipline and regulations, civilization has been unable to contest the All-Wise Qur'an on two of its matters, and has been defeated by them. These two matters are:

    Be steadfast in performing the prayers, and give zakat, {[*]: Qur'an, 2:43, etc.} and,

    God has permitted trade and forbidden usury. {[*]: Qur'an, 2:275.}

    We shall describe them, this miraculous victory, by means of an introduction. It is like this:

    As is proved in Isharat al-I'jaz, just as the source of mankind's revolutions is one phrase, so another phrase is the origin of all immorality.

    First Phrase:"

    So long as I'm full, what is it to me if others die of hunger."

    Second Phrase:"

    You work so that I can eat."

    Yes, the upper and lower classes in human society, that is, the rich and the poor, live at peace when in equilibrium. The basis of that equilibrium is compassion and kindness in the upper classes, and respect and obedience in the lower classes. Now, the first phrase has incited the upper classes to practise oppression, immorality, and mercilessness. And just as the second has driven the lower classes to hatred, envy, and to contend the upper classes, and has negated man's tranquillity for several centuries, so too this century, as the result of the struggle between capital and labour, it has been the cause of the momentous events of Europe well-known by all. Thus, together with all its societies for good works, all its establishments for the teaching of ethics, all its severe discipline and regulations, it could not reconcile these two classes of mankind, nor could it heal the two fearsome wounds in human life. The Qur'an, however, eradicates the first phrase with its injunction to pay zakat, and heals it. While it uproots the second phrase with its prohibition on usury and interest, and cures that. Indeed, the Qur'anic verse stands at the door of the world and declares usury and interest to be forbidden. It reads out its decree to mankind, saying: "In order to close the door of strife, close the door of usury and interest!" It forbids its students to enter it.

    Second Principle:

    Civilization does not accept polygamy. It considers the Qur'an's decree to be contrary to wisdom and opposed to man's benefits. Indeed, if the purpose of marriage was only to satisfy lust, polygamy would have been contrary to it. But as is testified to by all animals and corroborated by plants that 'marry', the purpose and aim of marriage is reproduction. The pleasure of satisfying lust is a small wage given by Divine mercy to encourage performace of the duty. Since in truth and according to wisdom, marriage is for reproduction and the perpetuation of the species, since women can give birth only once a year, and can be impregnated only half the month, and after the age of fifty fall into despair, and men can impregnate till a hundred years old, and thus one woman is insufficient for one man, civilization has been compelled to accept numerous houses of ill-repute.

    Third Principle:

    Unreasoning civilization criticizes the Qur'anic verse which apportions to women one third [in inheritance]. However, most of the rulings concerning social life are in accordance with the majority, and mostly a women finds someone to protect her. As for the man, she will be a burden on him and will have to combine efforts with someone else who will leave her her means of subsistence. Thus, in this form, if a woman takes half of the father's legacy, her husband makes up her deficiency. But if the man receives two parts from his father, one part he will give to maintaining the woman he has married, thus becoming equal with his sister. The justice of the Qur'an requires it to be thus. It has decreed it in this way.

    {(*): This is part of my court defence, which was the supplement for the Appeal Court and which silenced the court. It is appropriate as a footnote for this passage. I told the court of law: Surely if there is any justice on the face of the earth, it will reject and quash an unjust decision which has convicted someone for expounding a most sacred, just Divine rule which governs in the social life of three hundred and fifty million people in the year one thousand three hundred and fifty, and in every century, relying on the confirmation and consensus of three hundred and fifty thousand Qur'anic commentaries, and following the beliefs of our forefathers of one thousand three hundred and fifty years.}

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    Fourth Principle:

    Just as the Qur'an severely prohibits the worship of idols, so it forbids the worship of images, which is a sort of imitation of idol-worship. Whereas civilization counts the representation of forms as one of its virtues, and has attempted to dispute the Qur'an in this matter. But represented forms, whether pictorial or concrete, are either embodied tyranny, or embodied hypocrisy, or embodied lust; they excite lust and encourage man to oppression, hypocrisy, and licentiousness. Moreover, the Qur'an compassionately commands women to wear the veil of modesty so that they will be treated with respect and those mines of compassion will not be trodden under the feet of low desires, nor be like worthless goods for the excitement of lust. {(*): The Twenty-Fourth Flash of the Thirty-First Letter about the veiling of women has proved most decisively that Islamic dress is natural for women, and that to cast it aside is contrary to women's nature.} Civilization, however, has drawn women out of their homes, rent their veils, and corrupted mankind. For family life continues through the mutual love and respect of man and wife. But immodest dress has destroyed sincere respect and affection, and has poisoned family life. While worship of the human form in particular has shaken morality in appalling fashion, causing the abasement of man's spirit. This may be understood from the following: to look lustfully and with desire at the corpse of a beautiful woman who is in need of pity and compassion destroys morality; so too, to look lasciviously at the representations of dead women, or of living women, for they are like little corpses, shakes to their very roots the elevated human emotions, and destroys them.

    Thus, together with assisting human happiness in this world, all of thousands of matters of the Qur'an like the above three examples also serve eternal happiness. You can compare other matters to these.

    Just as present-day civilization stands defeated before the Qur'anic principles concerning human social life and in reality is bankrupt in the face of the Qur'an's miraculousness, so too it has been proved decisively in the previous twenty-five Words through the comparisons between European philosophy and human science, which are the spirit of civilization, and the wisdom of the Qur'an that philosophy is impotent and the wisdom of the Qur'an miraculous. The impotence and bankruptcy of philosophy and miraculousness and wealth of Qur'anic wisdom have been proved in the Eleventh and Twelfth Words; you may refer to those.

    Furthermore, just as present-day civilization is defeated before the miraculousness of the Qur'an's wisdom in regard to learning and actions, the same is true for literature and rhetoric. The comparison of the literature and rhetoric of civilization and those of the Qur'an is that of the dark grief and hopeless wailing of a motherless orphan and the low and uproarious song of a drunkard, and the yearning, hopeful sorrow of an elevated lover arising from a temporary separation and patriotic songs urging victory or war and high self-sacrifice. For in regard to the effects of its styles, literature and rhetoric produce either sorrow or joy. And sadness is of two sorts. It is either a dark sorrow arising from the lack of friends, that is, having no friends or owner, which is the sorrow produced by the literature of civilization, which is stained by misguidance, enamoured of nature, tainted by heedlessness, or it is the second sorrow. This arises from the separation of friends, that is, the friends exist, but their absence causes a yearning sorrow. This is the guidance-giving, light-scattering sorrow which the Qur'an produces. Joy, too, is of two sorts. One stimulates the desires of the soul. This is the mark of civilization's literature in the fields of theatre, cinema, and the novel. While the other joy silences the soul, and is subtle and mannerly, innocently urging the spirit, heart, mind, and subtle faculties to attain to sublime matters, to their original home and eternal abode, and their companions of the hereafter; it is the joy the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition produces. It fills man with eagerness for Paradise and eternal happiness and the vision of God's beauty.

    Thus, the vast meaning and mighty truth which the verse,

    Say: If the whole of mankind and the jinns were to gather together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they backed up each other with help and support {[*]: Qur'an, 17:88.} expresses, is imagined by those of scant intelligence to be an impossible supposition for the purposes of uttering an exaggerated piece of eloquence. God forbid! It is not an exaggeration, nor is it an impossible supposition; it is an absolutely truthful piece of rhetoric, and possible and actual.

    One aspect of its being in this form is this: if all the fine words of man and jinn which do not issue from the Qur'an and do not belong to it were to be gathered together, they could not imitate the Qur'an. And they have not been able to imitate it, for they have been unable to show that they have. The second aspect is this: civilization, and science and philosophy and European literature, which are the products of the thought and efforts of mankind and the jinn and even satans, remain in the very pits of impotence before the decrees, wisdom, and eloquence of the Qur'an. Just as we showed in the examples.

    Third Radiance:

    It is as though the All-Wise Qur'an is every century turned directly towards all the classes of humanity, and addresses each particularly. Indeed, since the Qur'an summons all mankind with all its classes and instructs them in belief, the highest and most subtle science, and in knowledge of God, the broadest and most luminous branch of learning, and in the laws of Islam, which are the most important and various of the sciences, it is essential that it should instruct every class and group appropriately. What it teaches, however, is the same; it does not differ. In which case, there have to be different levels in the same lesson, and according to its degree, every class takes its share from one of the veils of the Qur'an. We have given many examples of this, and they may be referred to. Here we shall only indicate one or two minor points, and the share of understanding of one or two classes. For example:

    He begets not, nor is He begotten * And there is none like unto Him. {[*]: Qur'an, 112:3-4.}

    The share of understanding of this of the ordinary people, which forms the most numerous class: "Almighty God is above having mother and father, relatives or wife." While the share of a middle class: "It is to deny the divinity of Jesus (Peace be upon him), and the angels, and anything which has been born." For although denying something impossible is apparently purposeless, according to the rules of rhetoric, a necessary statement is intended, which gives it purpose. Thus, the purpose of denying son and begetter, which are particular to corporality, is to deny the divinity of those who have offspring and parents and equals; and it is to show that they are not worthy of being worshipped. It is because of this that Sura al-Ikhlas is beneficial for everyone all the time. The share of a more advanced class: "Almighty God is above all relations which suggest giving birth and being born. He is exempt from having any partners, helpers, or fellows. His relations with all beings are those of Creator. He creates through His pre-eternal will with the command of "Be!," and it is. He is far beyond having any relation which is contrary to perfection, or is compelling, necessitating, or involuntary." And the share of understanding of a higher class still: "Almighty God is pre-eternal and post-eternal, He is the First and the Last. Neither in His essence, nor in His attributes, nor in His actions, has He in any way any equal, peer, like, or match, or anything similar, resembling, or analogous to Him. Only, in His acts, there may be comparisons expressing similarity:

    And God's is the highest similitude." {[*]: Qur'an, 16:60.}

    You can draw analogies with the above for other classes, which all receive different shares, like those who have attained knowledge of God, the lovers of God, and the truly sincere.

    A Second Example:

    Muhammad is not the father of any of your men. {[*]: Qur'an, 33:40.}

    The share of understanding from this of the first class: "Zayd, the servant of God's Noble Messenger (Peace and blessings be upon him), whom he also addressed as 'my son,' divorced his stately wife because he did not find himself equal to her. On God's command, the Messenger (PBUH) took her. The verse says: 'If the Prophet calls you son, it is in respect of his Messengership. In regard to his person, he is not your father, so that the women he takes should be unsuitable for him.'"

    The second class's share is this: "A great ruler looks on his subjects with paternal compassion. If he is a spiritual monarch ruling both outwardly and inwardly, then since his compassion goes a hundred times beyond that of a father, his subjects look on him as a father and on themselves as his real sons. A father's view cannot be transformed into that of a husband, and a daughter's view cannot be easily transformed into the view of a wife, so since the Prophet's taking the believers' daughters would seem inappropriate, the Qur'an says: 'The Prophet (PBUH) acts kindly towards you with the eye of Divine compassion, and treats you in a fatherly manner. In the name of his Messengership, you are like his children. But with regard to his human person, he is not your father so that his taking a wife from you should be unfitting.'"

    The third group would understand it like this: "You should not claim a connection with the Prophet (PBUH), and relying on his perfections and trusting in his fatherly compassion, commit errors and faults." Yes, many people are lazy because they lean on their elders and guides. They even sometimes say: "Our prayers have been performed." (Like some 'Alawis)

    The Fourth Point. Another group would understand a sign from the Unseen from this verse, as follows: The Prophet's male children would not remain at the degree of 'men' [ rijal ]; in consequence of some wise purpose, his descendants would not continue as men. Since through the use of the term 'rijal' it indicates that he is the father of women, his line would continue through women. And, Praise be to God, Fatima's blessed descendants, like Hasan and Husayn, the radiant moons of two luminous lines, continued the physical and spiritual line of the Sun of Prophethood.

    O God, grant blessings to him and his Family.

    (The First Light here reaches a conclusion with Three Rays.)

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    SECOND LIGHT

    The Second Light comprises Three Beams.

    FIRST BEAM:

    According to the testimony of thousands of brilliant scholars of rhetoric and the science of rhetorical style like Zamakhshari, Sakkaki, and 'Abd al-Qahir Jurjani, there is in the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition as a whole a pleasant fluency, a superior correctness, a firm mutual solidarity, and compact proportionateness, powerful co-operation between the sentences and parts, and an elevated harmony between the verses and their aims. And yet, while there are seven or eight significant factors that might mar or destroy the harmony, co-operation, and mutual support, and the fluency and correctness, they do not mar them, indeed, they give strength to the fluency, correctness, and proportionateness. Only, those causes have exerted an influence to some extent and taken others out of the veil of the order and fluency. But just as a number of bumps and excrescences appear on a tree, not to spoil the harmony of the tree, but to produce fruit which will be the means for the tree reaching its adorned perfection and beauty; in just the same way, these factors stick out their knobbly heads in order to express meanings which will enhance the Qur'an's fluent word-order. Thus, although the Perspicuous Qur'an was revealed part by part like stars over twenty years in response to the circumstances and needs, it possesses such a perfect harmony and displays such a proportionateness that it is as though it was revealed all at once.

    Furthermore, although the circumstances which prompted the Qur'an's revelation were all different and various, its parts are so mutually supportive that it is as though it was revealed in response to only one of them. And although the Qur'an came in response to different and repeated questions, it displays the utmost blending and unity, as though it was the answer to a single question. And although the Qur'an came to explain the requirements of numerous diverse events, it displays such a perfect order that it is as though it explains a single event. And although the Qur'an was revealed through Divine condescension in styles appropriate to the understanding of the innumerable people it would address, whose circumstances were different and diverse, it displays such a fine correspondence and beautiful smoothness of style that it is as though the circumstances were one and the level of understanding the same; it flows as smoothly as water. And although the Qur'an addresses numerous classes distant from one another, it possesses such an ease of exposition, such an eloquence in its word-order, such a clarity in its manner of expression that it is as though it is addressing a single class. Even, each class supposes that it alone is being addressed. And although the Qur'an was revealed in order to guide and lead to various aims, it possesses such an perfect integrity, such a careful balance, such a fine order that it is as though the aim was one.

    Thus, while these are all causes of confusion, they have been employed in the Qur'an's miraculous manner of exposition, in its fluency and proportionateness. For sure, everyone whose heart is without disease, whose mind is sound, whose conscience is not sick, whose taste is unimpaired sees in the Qur'an's manner of exposition a beautiful smoothness of style, a graceful harmony, a pleasing proportionateness, a unique eloquence. All the clear-sighted see that the Qur'an possesses an eye that sees the whole universe together with its outer and inner aspects clearly before it as though it was a page; that it turns the page as it wishes, and tells the page's meanings as it wishes. Several volumes would be necessary if we were to explain the meaning of this First Beam together with examples, so sufficing with the explanations and proofs of this fact in my Arabic treatises and in Isharat al-I'jaz, and in the twenty-five Words up to here, I have only pointed out here these features of the Qur'an in it as whole.

    SECOND BEAM

    This concerns the miraculous qualities in the Qur'an's unique style in the summaries and Most Beautiful Divine Names, which it shows at the ends of its verses.

    REMINDER:

    There are many verses in this Second Beam. These are not only examples for the Second Beam, but for all the preceding examples and Rays. It would be extremely lengthy to explain them all giving them their due, so for now I am compelled to be brief and succinct. I have therefore indicated very concisely all the verses which form examples of this mighty mystery of miraculousness, and have postponed detailed explanation of them to another time.

    Thus, the Qur'an of Miraculous Exposition mostly mentions summaries at the conclusion of its verses which either contain the Divine Names or their meanings; or refer the verse to the reason in order to urge it ponder over it; or they comprise a universal rule from among the aims of the Qur'an in order to corroborate and strengthen the verse. Thus, in the summaries are certain indications from the Qur'an's exalted wisdom and certain droplets from the water of life of Divine guidance, and certain sparks from the lightning of the Qur'an's miraculousness. Now I shall mention briefly only ten of those numerous indications, and point out a concise meaning of only one of numerous truths, which are all one example out of many. Most of these ten indications are found together in compact form in most verses and form a true embroidery of miraculousness. Furthermore, most of the verses we give as examples are examples of most of the indications. We shall point out only one indication for each verse, and shall just point lightly to the meanings of those verses given as examples in the preceding Words.

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